Gary Burton’s Tennessee Firebird

Jimmy Colvard was a teen in 1963 when he played those distinctive snapping and popping guitar sounds that helped make “Six Days on the Road” a runaway hit for Dave Dudley.  I have since learned that Colvard played guitar on a number of albums in the 1960s and 70s by such artists as Wynn Stewart, Waylon JenningsJohn Hartford, Ferlin Husky, Vassar Clements, Doug Kershaw, Kris Kristofferson, Ivory Joe Hunter, Dick Feller, Doc & Merle Watson, Guy Clark, Dolly Parton and French rocker, Eddy Mitchell.  Colvard was also part of the later lineup of Barefoot Jerry. (1975’s You Can’t Get Off With Your Shoes On).

One of Colvard’s more interesting associations was the 1966 country jazz experiment, Tennessee Firebird, by Gary Burton & Friends (near and far) on RCA.

Check out the musicians who played on this session:

Banjo:  Sonny Osborne
Bass:  Henry Strzelecki & Steve Swallow
Drums:  Kenneth Buttrey & Roy Haynes
Fiddle:  Buddy Spicher
Guitar:  Chet Atkins, Jimmy Colvard & Ray Edenton
Harmonica:  Charlie McCoy
Mandolin:  Bobby Osborne
Organ:  Gary Burton
Piano:  Gary Burton
Saxophone:  Steve Marcus
Steel Guitar:  Buddy Emmons
Vibraphone:  Gary Burton 
Producer:  Brad McCuen & Chet Atkins

This heavyweight assemblage of talent recorded a country jazz take on Bob Wills standard “Faded Love” that, of course, included some space for the vibraphone:

“Faded Love”      Gary Burton & Friends     1966

“Jazz encounters the world of Country Music. An exciting Jazz Quartet together with great Country instrumentalists” — LP cover.

Recorded September 19-21, 1966 in RCA Victor´s “Nashville Sound” Studio.  RCA issued a DJ promo 45 of the title track in 1967 to get the word out (would be curious to know of any recordings by earlier artists that also feature the unlikely pairing of banjo and vibraphone).

Billboard selected Tennessee Firebird as a “Jazz Spotlight” in the album reviews for their March 18, 1967 edition:

An interesting, enjoyable experiment — country music artists supporting an accomplished jazz musician — and it works.  The effect is countrified, but solid jazz.  Tunes country fans would recognize include “Born to Lose,” “I Can’t Help It,” and “Gone.”  This album will sell well in the jazz field and many country music fans will purchase it, too.”

Cash Box‘s review from their April 8, 1967 edition:

An interesting and effective blend of jazz and country sounds, this striking album by Gary Burton and Friends could win the approval of an extremely diverse audience.  Alternately playing vibes, piano, and organ, Burton leads his group through twelve rousing instrumentals including “Gone,” “Just Like a Woman,” “I Can’t Help It,” and “Alone and Forsaken.”  Deserves close attention.

Interesting to note that a few months later, Burton “was beating out melodies from his RCA Victor Tennessee Firebird LP with [Larry] Coryell’s searing guitar driving each phrase home” at the 1967 Newport Jazz Festival, as reported in the July 15, 1967 issue of Cash Box.

Looking back at Nashville’s history as a world-class recording center for a diverse range of musical sounds and styles — not just “folk” and country — Billboard‘s Nashville Bureau Chief, Gerry Wood, would write about jazz’s under-acknowledged contribution in the April 26, 1980 edition for a feature piece entitled “Music City No Limits – A Billboard Spotlight” (p. 41):

Nashville’s radio clout with two 50,000-watters has had an immense effect on the music industry.  Thousands of present day music business performers and executives cut their teeth on the late night offerings of WLAC or its down-the-dial counterpart, WSM, home of the “Grand Old Opry.”  WSM can be heard in all 48 continental states — as a mail-in contest proved a few years ago.

And then, along came jazz.

In the late ’50s, the music scene drew a very young Gary Burton to Nashville from Indiana, and he impressed no less an expert than Chet Atkins, who won the Playboy Jazz Poll guitarist award for nearly a decade.

Monday night jam sessions were held for years in Printer’s Alley at the Carousel Club — an off night when the country musicians would sit in and play jazz.  The leading picker was always Hank Garland, but the rest of the jazz lovers were on hand — and they included Gary Burton.

The first jazz LP to be cut in modern Nashville probably was the Tennessee Firebird album that Brad McCuen produced with Burton for RCA.  “We used Burton’s quartet and a large number of local pickers,” recalls McCuen.  “The men had a good time and this experience led to the formation of the band Area Code 615 which cut several commercially successful albums in the late ’60s and early ’70s.”

Nashville is the home of of the statewide Tennessee Jazz and Blues Society, an organizations that for the past seven years has held a Jazz Festival that has brought Nashville such attractions as Duke Ellington, Stan Kenton, Dizzy Gillespie, Thad Jones, Mel Lewis, Stan Getz and their groups.

McCuen and Bruce Davidson have a National Public Radio network show on jazz that originates from the studios of WPLN-FM, Nashville, and is syndicated.

Burton and Garland had already worked together in the studio six years earlier on Garland’s second solo album, Jazz Winds From a New Direction, recorded August 23, 1960.  Rich Kienzle explains how the musicians initially connected in his first-rate liner notes for Sundazed’s 2001 CD reissue:

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Hank-Garland-Jazz-Winds-from-a-New-Directionaa.jpg

“[Hank’s first] album appeared in January, 1960 on Columbia’s Harmony budget label, not a first-priority release but one that got his foot in the door.  As the Carousel jams continued [i.e., after-hours improvisations with fellow Nashville A-teamers at Jimmy Hyde’s Carousel Club in Printer’s Alley], the club became a magnet for every jazzman passing through town.  One night, Dave Brubeck showed up.  Another night, members of Stan Kenton’s Orchestra stood awestruck as Hank tore through “Back Home in Indiana.”  RCA executive Steve Sholes, Chet Atkins’s boss and close friend, brought Newport Jazz Festival producer George Wein to the Carousel.  Wein booked the group, Hank, Atkins, [Floyd] Cramer, Boots [Randolph], [Bob] Moore, [Buddy] Harman and a few others for Newport in July.  RCA would record the live performance [1961’s After the Riot at Newport LP].

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Billboard’s Oct. 31, 1960 review: “The country acts acquit themselves with distinction on seven tracks, with honors going to vibest Gary Burton, guitarist Hank Garland and pianist Floyd Cramer.”  

“Hank needed a vibes player for his band that summer.  Boots brought him talented 17-year-old Princeton, Indiana native Gary Burton.  Preparing to begin classes that fall at the famed Berklee College of Music (where in 2001 he serves as Executive Vice-President).  Burton played locally with Hank and became a Carousel regular who accompanied the group to Newport.  After rioting ended the festival prematurely, they recorded an impromptu session at the rented mansion they stayed at.  Two songs, “Relaxin'” and “Riot-Chous,” an extemporized bop piece that Boots and Hank created, figured prominently in Hank’s next Columbia session, scheduled for August 24.

[Incident at Newport — Billboard’s “Nashville” beat  (7-11-60)

Newport Jazz Festival was musically successful but hectic for local musicians who had little to do with which way they were going when they met a milling mob of thousands head-on.  Group, including Floyd Cramer, Brenton Banks, Buddy Harman, Bob Moore, Boots Randolph, Gary Burton and Hank Garland, was going one way when they met the mobbing crowd going the other.  The Nashvillians joined the crowd and helplessly went along with them.  They finally managed to identify themselves, however, and recorded with RCA Victor’s Chet Atlkins before leaving for home.]

“That day, Hank Garland realized his dream when he recorded the album that became Jazz Winds From a New Direction.  Burton was along for the auspicious occasion.  So were two established New York jazzmen:  bassist Joe Benjamin and Hank’s old [Paul Howard & His Arkansas] Cotton Pickers buddy Joe Morello, now well-known as drummer with the Dave Brubeck Quartet.  Though listed as producer, Don Law held the title in name only.  Grady Martin, Hank’s friend and friend session partner, actually ran things in the studio.”

Bear Family’s 1989 CD reissue, by the way, includes “Panhandle Rag” as a bonus track.  More recently, Tennessee Firebird was issued in 2014 on CD in Japan.

Five Years Ago:  Gary Burton & Hank Garland featured prominently in Zero to 180’s piece from March 2016, “Lost Album of ’60

History Bonus!

Presenting Gary Burton” by Ted Williams — Record World — Apr. 24, 1965

Cherokee Cowboys: Proven Band

Thanks to the late, great Charlie Coleman for singling out Ray Price’s redoubtable backing band, The Cherokee Cowboys and their 1965 Columbia debut (and sole) solo release – check out Buddy Emmons’ hot jazz steel guitar solo on “Devil’s Dream,” the kick-off tune from Western Strings:

“Devil’s Dream”     The Cherokee Cowboys     1965

Ray Price: guitar & vocal
Grady Martin & Pete Wade:  lead guitar
Jack Pruett & Charlie Harris:  rhythm guitar
Buddy Emmons & Jimmy Day:  steel guitar
Tommy Jackson, Francis Coleman & Wade Ray:  fiddle
Floyd Cramer:  piano
Harold Bradley:  bass guitar
Pete Burke & Buddy Killen:  bass
Buddy Harman:  drums
Johnny Bush:  drums & vocal

Recorded:
Dec. 1964 – Columbia Recording Studio, Nashville
Mar. 1965 – Music City Recording, Nashville

The Cherokee Cowboys – 1965
[photo courtesy Buddy Emmons.com]

Cherokee Cowboys - 1965(Top Row) Pete Burke, Wade Ray, Buddy Emmons
(Bottom Row) Charlie Harris, Johnny Bush, Keith Coleman

Western Strings would shoot to the Top 20 of the Country charts the first week of release, according to Billboard’s July 17, 1965 edition. and remain there the following week (while Dick Curless and his Tombstone Every Mile album quietly jumped ahead two spaces during that same time period to the #17 slot – just above Western Strings).

Cherokee Cowboys LP-a

Rich Kienzle would include Price and the Cherokee Cowboys in Southwest Shuffle:  Pioneers of Honky-Tonk, Western Swing & Country Jazz:

“It was no small paradox that as Price continued weighing changes in 1964, he hired two legendary swing fiddlers.  Wade Ray had made his name on the West Coast as a bandleader and singer; Keith Coleman, one of the finest improvisers in western swing, had worked with both the Texas Playboys and Hank Thompson’s Brazos Valley Boys.  Despite the changes, Price retained a steadfast pride in the Cowboys.  With Ernest Tubb’s Texas Troubadours making their own records, Price talked Don Law into recording a Cowboys album with Grady Martin and Tommy Jackson present along with Harold Bradley.

At the first session for Western Strings album in December of ’64, this capable group of musicians, who’d worked together continually for years, were so nervous about recording on their own that, after 45 minutes of musical inhibition, a frustrated Price sent a studio handyman out to buy some Wild Turkey.  He literally ordered everyone to get drunk to loosen them up; it worked.  Emmons, Ray, and Coleman played brilliantly.  “Grady and I ended up drunk, and a lot of the other guys were in good shape, too,” Emmons laughed.  “And when I heard [the song played] back I couldn’t believe how together it was for the condition we were in.”  Because recording costs came out of Price’s royalties, the album included the original ‘Crazy Arms,’ and Price took credit for the arrangements to make back any money lost.”

1977 would see the release of a Ray Price & the Cherokee Cowboys album on ABC-Dot entitled Reunited, a Top 50 Top Country album and one that would yield a Top 30 single — “Different Kind of Flower” b/w “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” (as well as their take on Bob Dylan’s “I’ll Be Your Baby Tonight”).  Recording the album in Nashville would be Price, along with MoisesBlondieCalderon, Buddy Emmons, Pete Wade, Tommy Jackson, Harold Bradley, and the two Buddys – Harman & Spicher.

Saving Country Music has a nice piece of history – “The Ray Price Cherokee Cowboys Proving Ground” – that pays tribute to the musical personnel that have passed through the ranks of Ray Price, who took over Hank Williams’ Drifting Cowboys before putting together his own ensemble.

Cherokee Cowboys LP promo

Zero to Infinity: Buddy Emmons

This week we said goodbye to Buddy Emmons, one of the world’s great musicians and subject of three prior Zero to 180 piecesHere is but a *45-second live demonstration (beginning to end) of Buddy Emmons’ singular genius with the pedal steel guitar:

Four Wheel Drive” (live)     Buddy Emmons     1965

Still image from (deleted) video clip
[courtesy Steel Guitar Forum]

[*Earnestly hoping this stunning live clip returns one day to YouTube]

“Four Wheel Drive” (studio recording)     Buddy Emmons     1959     

*

Billboard‘s April 4, 1960 edition awarded three stars (i.e., “good sales potential”) to the original Decca 45 release and praised “Four Wheel Drive,” an original composition, for its uniqueness of sound:

“Four Wheel Drive” — A swinging instrumental, has a country and jazz quality.  Ununsual item for jocks.

“Blue Wind” — This one with a Hawaiian flavor plus a touch of blues orientation.

Only image of this 45 I can find online — scary

*

It is disappointing that (as of 2021) Discogs and 45Cat are both bereft of entries for Emmons’ outstanding sole Decca single [link to PragueFrank‘s session info].  This gaping historical hole is in stark contrast to the high regard in which Emmons is widely held:

“… world’s foremost steel guitarist” (Rolling Stone)
“… steel guitar innovator” (The Tennessean)
“… fabled steel guitarist” (CMT)
“… influential pedal steel guitarist” (Reuters)

Three years prior to Emmons’ stint with Decca, Cash Box had seen fit to review “Silver Bell” b/w “Border Serenade” in their May 25, 1957 edition (two years after a head-on collision with a truck), the second of two singles recorded for Columbia as “Buddie” Emmons:

“Silver Bell” [grade: B] — The Buddie Emmons outfit takes hold of the delectable evergreen and wraps it up in a happy-go-lucky, quick beat instrumental fashion.  Bright side for deejay programming.

“Border Serenade” [grade: B] — Flip features more top-flight, light-hearted instrumental wax by Emmons and the crew.  An enticing melody and Latin beat rounds out a dandy coupler.

Music Reporter ad — Nov. 2, 1963 — Name Checks 1963 CUTTING-EDGE ALBUM

According to Rich Kienzle’s notes for Amazing Steel Guitar: The Buddy Emmons Collection, Emmons, who was a native of Mishawaka, Indiana (hometown of fellow steel wiz, Herb Remington), had been playing a lap steel for four years when he ordered his first pedal steel guitar — a triple-neck Bigsby — in 1952 when he was just fifteen, “a pure custom job, complete with an onboard ashtray, cigarette lighter and Buddy’s name emblazoned across the front.”     

Three years later in 1955, Emmons made a big splash with the addition of his Bigsby to the trademark twin lead guitar sound of Jimmy Dickens as a member of his backing band, The Country Boys, points out Kienzle, who got the opportunity to display their considerable musicality at Nashville’s Music City Recording Studio in January, 1956 on such blazing instrumentals as “Country Boy Bounce,” “Raisin’ the Dickens,” and “Red Wing.”

A partnership with Shot Jackson led to the founding in 1957 (possibly 1955) of Sho-Bud Guitars, a top name in pedal steel, especially after Bigsby stopped their steel production.  Emmons left the running of the company to Jackson in the late 1950s so that he could join one of country’s finest backing bands, The Texas Troubadours, an experience that led to the oddly ambiguous recording session with Owen Bradley on October 5, 1959 that produced the extraordinary “Four Wheel Drive” and “Blue Wind” 45 for Decca (plus two unissued tracks).

Kienzle notes a tragic missed opportunity to work with legendary jazz figure, Quincy Jones, on 1963 landmark album, Steel Guitar Jazz, where Emmons collaborated with Jerome Richardson (saxophone), Charlie Persip (drums), Art Davis (bass), and Bobby Scott (piano):

Emmons stayed with [Ernest] Tubb until 1962, when he made two major changes:  leaving the Troubadours and, after disagreements with Shot Jackson, leaving Sho-Bud.  He and North Carolina inventor Ron Lashley formed the Emmons Guitar Company shortly after that, creating a steel that included many of Emmons’ design ideas that Shot had rejected.  Early that year, when Jimmy Day left Ray Price’s Cherokee Cowboys, Emmons replaced him in the band.  Again, Buddy was working with one of the premier country road bands.

Off the road, he often played jazz with other musicians around Nashville.  When Ernest Tubb’s son Justin, a successful singer in his own right, heard Buddy at one of these jam sessions in 1963, he suggested that Emmons try an all-jazz steel guitar album and soon interested Mercury Records in the concept.  Jazz arranger, Quincy Jones, working as head of pop A&R at Mercury, suggested some tunes, and was originally set to produce the session.  Jones couldn’t do it, but Buddy, who’d wanted to record in Nashville, was set to record in New York on July 22, 1963 with a jazz rhythm section.

Record World‘s November 21, 1964 report on the 1964 Country Music Association convention (the one where Dizzy Dean was made an honorary member of the Grand Ole Opry and receiving a standing ovation) rhetorically asked, “Who can ever forget the jam sessions held in the Sho-Bud room or the Emmons Guitar room?”

That same year – in a fascinating historical side note, courtesy of a news item published in the May 30, 1964 issue of Music Business – we learn that Emmons’ wife was also part of the music industry:

A. Halsey Cowan, international attorney for Nashville’s Pamper Music, conducted a seminar on copyrights for publishing firms at the Library of Congress May 15 [1964] attended by pubbery reps from a wide area.  Other speakers included … Mrs. Buddie Emmons and Walter Haynes, Moss Rose pubbery … 

Emmons’ tenure with Ray Price’s backing band, The Cherokee Cowboys, was an artistically fertile time – with frequent jam sessions on the tour bus, says Kienzle – that peaked with the recording of the Western Strings LP for Columbia in 1965.  Price would subsequently make a conscious effort to de-emphasize the country elements in his live band, however, a move that impelled Emmons to join Roger Miller (himself an ex-Cherokee Cowboy) in relocating to the West Coast, where he began playing steel as a session player.  

Buddy Emmons-aBuddy Emmons-bBuddy Emmons-c

How cool that my all-time favorite steel guitarist played with one of my top groups (NRBQ) and guitarists (Duane Eddy).  Steel Guitar Forum, no surprise, already has a thread devoted to Buddy’s memory, while Edd Hurt penned a nice tribute to Emmons in The Nashville Scene that talks about some of Buddy’s pedal steel technical innovations, such as extra strings and pedals that raise the fretboard.

Two essential/must-have Buddy Emmons recordings – Amazing Steel Guitar: The Buddy Emmons Collection & Danny Gatton’s Redneck Jazz Explosion – are both commanding high prices on Amazon, unfortunately.

Buddy Emmons-1Buddy Emmons-2

*                    *                    *

Steel Guitar Great Buddy Emmons Dies
Pedal steel player backed up artists from Ernest Tubb to Linda Rondstat
By Stephen L. Betts – Rolling Stone – July 30, 2015

Musician Buddy Emmons, widely regarded as the world’s foremost steel guitarist, hailed for his unique playing style and innovations with regard to tuning, has died at age 78.

Born Buddie Gene Emmons in Mishawaka, Indiana, and nicknamed “the Big E,” his guitar work was heard on countless recordings by acts ranging from Ray Price and Ernest Tubb, to Linda Ronstadt and the Carpenters.

At 11 years old, Emmons studied on lap steel guitar at the Hawaiian Conservatory of Music in South Bend, Indiana, learning to play country music by listening to the radio.  As a teenager, he joined his first bands, relocating to Illinois then to Detroit, before moving to Nashville in 1955 to join Grand Ole Opry star Little Jimmy Dickens’ band at 18 years old.  Christened the Country Boys, Dickens’ band recorded several instrumentals, including three of Emmons’ original compositions.  After Dickens dissolved his band in 1956, Emmons and fellow guitarist Shot Jackson formed the Sho-Bud Company, which designed and built steel guitars.  Emmons also began extensive Nashville studio work, and joined Ernest Tubb’s Texas Troubadours the following year, remaining with Tubb until 1958.

Four years later, Emmons became a member of Ray Price’s band the Cherokee Cowboys.  By 1967, he was living in California, and after joining Roger Miller’s band, landed more high-profile studio work in Los Angeles, appearing on records by Nancy Sinatra, Gram Parsons, John Sebastian and others.

A 1974 return to Nashville continued his studio work, on LPs by George Strait, Mel Tillis, Gene Watson, June Carter Cash, Ricky Skaggs and many more.  Emmons was inducted into the Steel Guitar Hall of Fame in 1981.  He toured with the Everly Brothers in the Nineties and would later be heard occasionally on radio’s A Prairie Home Companion.

part of all-star ensemble on Katz Kobayashi‘s undated one-off album

Emmons retired in 2007 after the sudden death of his wife Peggy.  In 2013, a tribute LP was released.  The Big E:  A Salute to Steel Guitarist Buddy Emmons, featured Willie Nelson, Little Jimmy Dickens, Emmylou Harris, Rodney Crowell, and several steel players including Randle Currie, from Brad Paisley’s band.  A rare bit of Emmons songwriting, “Are You Sure,” also appears on Kacey Musgraves’ Pageant Material as a hidden track duet with Willie Nelson.  As the story goes, he and Nelson penned the 1965 song together after a confrontation with a bar patron.

Fellow steel player Steve Fishell, who cites “The Big E” as a chief inspiration and is currently on the road with Emmylou Harris, summed up Emmons’ death to Rolling Stone Country as nothing short of a tragedy:  “It’s a towering loss in the pedal steel community and to music lovers everywhere.”

1964 SINGLE — “With Buddy Emmons & the Nuggeteers”

Buddy Emmons 45s & LP Discography

— song titles in boldface link to streaming audio

The Country Boys     “Country Boy Bounce”     1956

Buddie Emmons     “Cold Rolled Steel”     1956

Faron Young     “Sweet Dreams”     1956

June Carter     “Strange Woman”     1956

∞ “Little Jimmy Dickens     “Me And My Big Mouth”     1958

Ernest Tubb     “Half a Mind”     1958

Buddy Emmons     “Four Wheel Drive”     1959

Buddy Emmons     “Rose City Chimes”     1961

Duane Eddy     “Fireball Mail”     1962

Shot Jackson & Buddy Emmons   Singing Strings of Steel Guitar & Dobro   1963

Buddie Emmons     Steel Guitar Jazz     1963

Ray Price     “Night Life”     1963

Dolores Smiley     “Leaving By Request”     1964

Skeeter Davis     Blueberry Hill And Other Favorites     1965

Ray Price’s Cherokee Cowboys     Western Strings     1965

Buddy Emmons     “B. Bowman Hop” (recorded live with George Jones)    1965

Johnny Paycheck     “Heartbreak Tennessee”     1965

Willie Nelson     “One In a Row”     1966

Nancy Sinatra     Country My Way     1967

Gary Burton     Tennessee Firebird     1967

The Dillards     The Wheatstraw Suite     1968

Judy Collins     “I Pity the Poor Immigrant”     1968

The Fifth Avenue Band     “Good Lady of Toronto”     1969

Buddy Emmons    “Witches Brew”     1969

Buddy Emmons     Emmons Guitar Inc.     1970

Roger Miller     A Trip In the Country     1970

John Phillips     John, The Wolf King of L.A.     1970

Denny Doherty     Watcha Gonna Do     1970

Dewey Martin & Medicine Ball     Dewey Martin & Medicine Ball     1970

Longbranch/Pennywhistle     Longbranch/Pennywhistle     1970

∞ John Hartford     Iron Mountain Depot     1970

∞ John Sebastian     “Rainbows All Over Your Blues”     1970

Michael Parks     “Lonely and Blue”     1970

Buck Owen & the Buckaroos     “Cajun Steel Guitar”     1970

Buddy Emmons    “Wichita Lineman”     1970

Ray Charles     “Wichita Lineman”     1971

Sandy Denny     “Crazy Lady Blues”     1971

69ers     “The Christian Life”     1971

∞ John Stewart     “The Road Shines Bright”     1971

∞ Jimmy Wakely     “Detour”     1971

Russ Giguere     Hexagram 16     1971

Paul Siebel     Jack-Knife Gypsy     1971

Rosebud     Rosebud     1971

Larry Murray     Sweet Country Suite     1971

Shot Jackson & Buddy Emmons     Famous Sho-Bud Guitars     1971

Rowan Brothers     Rowan Brothers     1972

Everly Brothers     Stories We Could Tell     1972

∞ John Stewart     Sunstorm     1972

∞ Jim Pulte     Out the Window     1972

Nev Nicholls & the Country Playboys     “Take My Heart”     1972

Odyssey     Country Tune     1972

Linda Ronstadt     “In My Reply”     1972

Roger McGuinn     “Water Is Wide”     1973

The Carpenters      “Top of the World”     1973

Gram Parsons     GP     1973

Doug Dillard     Duelin’ Banjo     1973

Judee Sill     Heart Food     1973

Phil Everly     Star Spangled Springer     1973

Don Everly     Sunset Towers     1974

The Cats     The Love in Your Eyes     1974

The Carpenters     Now and Then     1974

Henry Mancini Orchestra     Country Gentleman     1974

Johnny Bush    “Home in San Antone[Curly Chalker on 2nd steel]    1974

Brewer & Shipley     “It Did Me In”     1974

Kenny O’Dell     “Soulful Woman”     1974

Sheepskin Pat     From Nashville     1975

Ronee Blakley     Welcome     1975

Dottie West     Carolina Cousins     1975

Benny Martin     Tennessee Jubilee     1975

Bobby Bare     Hard Time Hungrys     1975

Buddy Emmons     Steel Guitar     1975

Billy Walker     “Don’t Stop In My World”     1975

Jeanne Pruett     “Honey On His Hands”     1975

Jackie DeShannon     “Bette Davis Eyes”    1975

Mayf Nutter     “Goin’ Skinny Dippin’”     1976

Marty Robbins     “Among My Souvenirs”     1976

Connie Smith     I Don’t Wanna Talk It Over Anymore     1976

Rosemary Clooney     Look My Way     1976

Roy Head     A Head of His Time     1976

John Hartford     Nobody Knows What You Do     1976

David Allan Coe     Longhaired Redneck     1976

Kenny Valeck     “Country Lady” b/w “Trailer Full of Love”     1976

Hargus “Pig” Robbins     Country Instrumentalist of the Year     1977

John Hughey     On and Off Stage     1977

Merle Haggard     My Farewell to Elvis     1977

Mickey Newbury     Rusty Tracks     1977

Dennis Weaver     Dennis Weaver     1977

Ray Price & the Cherokee Cowboys     Reunited     1977

The Capitals     The Capitals     1977

The Osborne Brothers     From Rocky Top to Muddy Bottom     1977

Dillard/Hartford/Dillard    Glitter Grass from the Nashwood Hollyville Strings    1977

Russ Hicks & Jimmy Crawford     Chicken Pickin’ Good     1977

∞ Buddy Emmons & Buddy Spicher     Buddies     1977

Nashville Bar Association     Nashville Bar Association     1977

Pat Garrett      “A Little Something On the Side”     1977

∞ Gove Scrivenor     “Sugar Bear”     1978

Ian Tyson     “Turning Thirty”     1978

Bobby Hicks     “Panhandle Rag”     1978

Marcia Ball     Circuit Queen     1978

Bryn Haworth     Grand Arrival     1978

Larry Gatlin     Oh! Brother     1978

Guy Clark     Guy Clark     1978

Steve Young     No Place to Fall     1978

Danny Gatton     Redneck Jazz Explosion [“Rock Candy“]    1978 [1995*]

Buddy Emmons with Lenny Breau     Minors Aloud     1978

Margo Smith     Don’t Break the Heart That Loves You     1978

Donna Darlene     Girl on the Cover     1979

Mel Tillis     Are You SincereMr. Entertainer   1979

Ricky Skaggs     Sweet Temptation     1979

Thumbs Carllile     Guitar WizardJazz Carllile Style    1979

Nashville Superpickers     Killer Joe” (live)     1979

George Jones with Waylon Jennings    “Night Life”     1979

John Hartford/Pat Burton/Benny Martin   “Slumberin on the Cumberland”   1979

Denny Laine with Paul McCartney     “Send Me the Heart”     1980

John Starling     “Long Time Gone”     1980

Levon Helm     American Son     1980

Sonny Curtis      Love Is All Around     1980

John Hartford     You And Me at Home     1980

∞ Willie Nelson & Ray Price     San Antonio Rose     1980

Curtis Potter with Darrell McCall & Ray Sanders   Texas Dance Hall   1980

The Ozark Mountain Daredevils     Ozark Mountain Daredevils     1980

Tammy Wynette     You Brought Me Back     1981

John Anderson     I Just Came Home Today to Count the Memories     1981

Tompall And the Glaser Brothers     Lovin’ Her Was Easier     1981

J.J. Cale     Grasshopper     1982

Lenny Breau     When Lightn’ Strikes     1982

Razzy Bailey     The Midnight Hour     1983

Arthur Blanch     What Do Lonely People Do     1983

John Cody Carter     When It Rains It Pours     1984

Ray Pennington & Buddy Emmons     Swingin’ From the 40s – 80s     1984

Ray Charles     Do I Ever Cross Your Mind     1984

Skeeter Davis & NRBQ     She Sings, They Play     1985

Scott Mohoric     Pancho Y Lefty’s     198?

Billy Apollo     “Coast Guard Blues”     1986

Gary Burton     “Faded Love”     1987

Buddy Emmons     Christmas Sounds of the Steel Guitar     1987

Ray Price     The Heart of Country Music     1987

John Anderson     10     1988

∞ k.d. lang     “Shadowland”     1988

The Geezinslaws     The Geezinslaws     1989

∞ Ray Pennington & Buddy Emmons     Swingin’ Our Way     1990

∞ Ray Price & Faron Young     Memories That Last     1991

∞ Lionel Cartwright     “Waitin’ for the Sun to Shine”     1991 

∞ Randy Travis     “Allergic to the Blues”     1991

Trisha Yearwood     “For Reasons I’ve Forgotten”     1992

∞ George Jones & Willie Nelson     “I Gotta Get Drunk”     1992

∞ George Strait     Pure Country (soundtrack album) + Holding My Own   1992

∞ Carlene Carter     Little Love Letters     1993

∞ George Strait     Lead On     1994

Jill Sobule     “(Theme From) The Girl in the Affair”     1995

Michael Ballew     You Better Hold On     1995

∞ Gene Watson     The Good Ole Days     1996

∞ Larry Carlton     The Gift     1996

∞ Ray PenningtonBuddy Emmons     Goin’ Out Swingin’     1997

Manhattan Transfer     “I Know Why And So Do You”     1997

The Bishops     “A Satisfied Mind”     1997

Tammy McRae     Tammy McRae     1997

Steve Wariner     Burnin’ the Roadhouse Down     1998

Jimmie Crawford     Steel Crazy     1998

Mark Chesnutt     I Don’t Want to Miss a Thing     1999

John Prine & Melba Montgomery     “Milwaukee Here I Come”     1999

Ingela Söderlund     Vågar Jag Fråga     1999

Josh Graves     Sultan of Slide     2000

∞ Gene Watson     From the Heart     2001

∞ Ray Price     Time     2002

Memarie     Memarie     2003

∞ Albert Lee     Heartbreak Hill     2003  

∞ Albert Lee     Road Runner     2006

∞ Vince Gill     “This New Heartache”     2006

George Jones & Friends     God’s Country     2006

∞ Willie Nelson/Merle Haggard/Ray Price     Last of the Breed     2007

Emmons steel guitars

Rare Solo Buddy Emmons!
YouTube audio clip (posted Dec. 2019) that features these early recordings

Song List:
【00:00】- “Four Wheel Drive” (1959)
【01:54】- “Red Wing” (1956)
【03:54】- “Raisin’ the Dickens” (1956)
【05:55】- “Cajun Steel Guitar” (1962 or 63)
【07:46】- “Silver Bells” (1957)
【09:59】- “Border Serenade” (1957)
【12:35】- “Cold Rolled Steel” (1956)
【14:40】- “Flint Hill Special” (1956)
【16:35】- “Blue Wind” (1959)
【19:15】- Buddie’s Boogie” (1956)
【21:39】- “Lily Dale” (1962 or 63)
【24:14】- “Country Boy Bounce” (1956)
【26:17】- “Rose City Chimes” (1961)

Great Value for the Money:
“Cold Rolled Steel” & Friends

1992 CD compilation Movin’ Country Instrumentals kicks off with “Cold Rolled Steel” — Buddy Emmons’ debut Columbia 45 from 1956 — along with other elusive tracks from some of country music’s finest pickers, including Joe Maphis (“Fire on the Strings“), Herby Remington (“Remington Ride“), Harold Bradley (“Sugarfoot Rag”), Charlie McCoy (“Orange Blossom Special“), Grady Martin (“El Paso“), Jerry Reed (“I’m Movin’ On“), Jerry Byrd (“Memories of Maria“), Carl Perkins (“Spanish Harlem”), and Arthur Smith (“Guitar Boogie“), the last song listed — originally recorded in 1946 while stationed in Washington with the Navy — renowned as part of a select group of candidates for “first rock ‘n’ roll recording.”

Did You Know?

Buddy Emmons was one of the featured musicians (along with Hank Garland and The Jordanaires) who performed on an LP of jingles –Ballantine Presents Music to Sell Ballantine Beer By — issued in 1960.

Link to Zero to 180 pieces tagged as Music in advertising

Roy Lanham: Country Meets Jazz

Yesterday’s piece about Noel Boggs made reference to Roy Lanham, who would later play guitar in the Sons of the Pioneers to pay the bills, yet sought much more fulfilling challenges in his own music’s attempt to straddle two distinct musical styles – country and jazz – despite the frustration of being considered too country for jazz fans and too jazzy for the country crowd.

“Eager Beaver”     Roy Lanham     1958

Roy Howard Lanham:  Lead Guitar
James Leon P. ‘JimmieWidener:  Rhythm Guitar
Arthur DouglasDougDalton:  Mandolin
DonaldDustyRhoads:  Bass

Rich Kienzle, in the liner notes for the Roy Lanham two-album CD reissue for 1958’s Sizzling Strings and 1963’s The Fabulous Guitar, points out Lanham’s unique contribution that set him apart from the other country-jazz guitar giants:

“The Lanham style, harmonically richer, combined both single-note passages with luxuriant chord melodies.  The vibrant four-part harmonies he created for his chord solos were his own idea, an improvement upon three-part harmonies he heard Western swing guitarist Sheldon Bennett play.”

This televised performance allows you to see Lanham’s complex chordal work in action:

“Lover Come Back to Me”     Roy Lanham

From Kienzle’s liner notes I learned the following fascinating facts:

−  In 1943 Lanham would be drawn to Cincinnati’s 50,000-watt powerhouse, WLW, where he would work as a staff musician for the station’s various acts and later befriend Joe Maphis, Merle Travis, and Grandpa Jones.  Lanham would augment his income as a staff musician by playing on King recording sessions, most notably the Delmore Brothers, with “Freight Train Boogie” being the preeminent track.

−  WLW would also bring Roy Lanham together with Chet Atkins, and the two would unite in 1946 for a ‘Chester Atkins’ one-off single release, “Guitar Blues” b/w “Brown Eyes Cryin’ in the Rain,” on Nashville’s new indie label, Bullet.  Says Billboard, in its Nov. 30, 1946 edition:  “Majority of ‘Guitar Blues’ side allotted to guitars, with melody carried by twin guitars playing in bass and treble clef respectively.  It’s a swingy, pungent side for folk music, the brief sax solo adds little.”

−  Roy Lanham would also replace a hot-headed Jimmy Bryant, who had stormed off the Hometown Jamboree television show in 1955 for the last time.  Lanham would play instrumental duets from Bryant’s long-time partner, Speedy West, on “Hometown Jamboree,” but sadly, the two would never record together.

Speedy West & Roy Lanham use Fender guitars exclusively

Roy Lanham with Speedy West−  In 1959 Roy Lanham would overdub guitar parts onto a tape previously recorded by three Seattle high school teens, the Fleetwoods, accompanied only by car-key percussion.  This song, “Come Softly to Me,” would put the tiny Dolton label on the map.

−  Lanham, who had found plenty of work throughout his life as a session guitarist, once played a recording session with The Monkees.  Lanham would also perform on the final album of Tex Williams before his death in 1985.

Roy Lanham played in the Sons of the Pioneers from 1961 through 1986

Roy Lanham with Sons of PioneersDueling Fender guitars:  Roy Lanham’s 7-string vs. Andy Tielman’s 10-string

Roy Lanham 45

“Pony Tail”: Red Rhodes on the Crown Label

How inspiring to see that Orville J. “RedRhodes – the legendary steel guitarist who, by the late 1960s, was one of the most in-demand session musicians on the West Coast – got his start on Crown.

           Once a day – 1961                blue blue day – 1962           Steel Guitar Rag – 1963

Red Rhodes - Crown aRed Rhodes - Crown bRed Rhodes - Crown c

Pony Tail,” from 1965’s Guitars Go Country LP, sounds – most intriguingly – like some long-lost Speedy West & Jimmy Bryant number:

[Pssst:  Click on the triangle above to play ”Pony Tail'” by Red Rhodes.]

Red Rhodes - Crown LP

Red Rhodes would go on to release a live album on indie label, Happy Tiger, in 1969 — Red Rhodes & the Detours + Live at the Palomino — and his backup band, interestingly, would include Jerry Cole, another Crown alumnus.

Everyone Loves Red:  A Selected Red Rhodes Sessionography*

The Ventures in Space – The Ventures – 1964
Begin – The Millennium – 1968
Notorious Byrd Brothers – The Byrds – 1968
The Wichita Train Whistle Sings – Michael Nesmith – 1968
Bubble Gum, Lemonade & Something for Mama – Cass Elliot – 1969
Instant Replay – The Monkees – 1969
It’s Not Killing Me – Mike Bloomfield – 1969
John Phillips – John Phillips – 1969
Hand Sown, Home Grown – Linda Ronstadt – 1969
Nancy – Nancy Sinatra – 1969
Weeds – Brewer & Shipley – 1969
The Blue Marble – Sagittarius – 1969
Magnetic South – Michael Nesmith – 1970
Loose Salute – Michael Nesmith – 1970
Sweet Baby James – James Taylor – 1970
Tom Rush – Tom Rush – 1970
Nevada Fighter – Michael Nesmith – 1971
Possum – Possum – 1971
Lead Free – B. W. Stevenson – 1972
One Man Dog – James Taylor – 1972
Rhymes and Reasons – Carole King – 1972
Son of Schmilsson – Harry Nilsson – 1972
A Song for You – The Carpenters – 1972
Summer Breeze – Seals & Crofts – 1972
Tantamount to Treason – Michael Nesmith – 1972
And the Hits Just Keep on Comin’ – Michael Nesmith – 1972
Willis Alan Ramsey – Willis Alan Ramsey – 1972
Five & Dime, 1973 – David Ackles – 1973
Pure Country, 1973 – Garland Frady – 1973
Pretty Much Your Standard Ranch Stash – Michael Nesmith – 1973
Valley Hi – Ian Matthews – 1973
Calabasas – B. W. Stevenson – 1974
L.A. Turnaround – Bert Jansch – 1974
Black Bach – Lamont Dozier – 1974
The Prison – Michael Nesmith – 1974
Diamonds & Rust – Joan Baez – 1975
Marriott – Steve Marriott – 1975
Midnight on the Water – David Bromberg – 1975
Sweet America – Buffy Sainte-Marie – 1976
Frolicking in the Myth – Steven Fromholz – 1977
Road Songs – Hoyt Axton – 1977
The Way I Am – Billy Preston – 1981
Tropical Campfires – Michael Nesmith – 1992

*Proof of popularity courtesy of Wikipedia

“Killer Joe”: Nashville Super Pickers in Austin

In this 1979 performance from TV’s Austin City Limits, Buddy Emmons (steel guitar) and Phil Baugh (electric guitar) take The Nashville Super Pickers for a test drive using the Benny Golson jazz standard, “Killer Joe,” as their vehicle:

Buddy Emmons:  Steel Guitar & Vocals
Phil Baugh:  Lead Guitar
Russ Hicks:  Rhythm Guitar & Steel Guitar
Johnny Gimble:  Fiddle & Vocals
Charlie McCoy:  Harmonica & Vocals
Henry Strzelecki:  Bass & Vocals
Buddy Harmon:  Drums
Hargus Robbins:  Piano

Nashville Super Pickers at ACL

This television soundtrack album was originally released in 1979 on Flying Fish, home of Buddy Emmons, Vassar Clements, John Hartford, Mason Williams, Peter Rowan, Bright Morning Star, Sweet Honey in the Rock, and New Grass Revival, among others. .

Buddy Emmons flanked by Phil Baugh (left) and Russ Hicks (right)

Buddy at Austin City Limits

From the liner notes on the back cover —

Buddy was recently voted best steel guitarist in a reader’s poll, and he has done more for the instrument, technically and musically, than any other player.  As a studio musician, he has graced the records of Ray Charles, Judy Collins, and John Hartford, among many others.  His own Flying Fish records include Steel Guitar, Buddy Emmons Sings Bob Wills, Buddies (with Buddy Spicher), and Minors Aloud (with Lenny Breau).

“BluEmmons”: Landmark Steel Guitar Jazz

Just as Louis Jordan’s pairing of jump blues with country-style steel guitar was seen as a radical move in 1947, Buddy Emmons‘ decision to feature his masterful steel guitar stylings within a modern jazz context was considered equally bold in 1963 when Mercury released groundbreaking album, Steel Guitar Jazz.  “BluEmmons” – a Buddy Emmons original – is the album’s kick-off track:

“Bluemmons”     Buddy Emmons     1963

Buddy Emmons wasn’t the first musician to be featured playing a pedal steel guitar in a jazz setting, but it is unlikely that anyone else recorded an entire date playing one prior to this 1963 session.  Although both he and the instrument are indelibly associated with country music, Emmons makes it work for several reasons.  He’s surrounded by some top players, including Bobby Scott, Jerome Richardson, Art Davis, and Charlie Persip;  he also interacts with the band rather than overdoing the special effects available to him, especially the horn-like sounds obtained from his use of the slide.  Emmons also chose an intriguing mix of material.  Obvious highlights are the loping treatment of “Where or When,” featuring Richardson’s delicious soprano sax trading off with the leader, and Emmons’ hot playing of “(Back Home Again In) Indiana.”  Equally rewarding are the jazz classics:  Ray Brown’s soulful “Gravy Waltz,” an intricate romp through Sonny Rollins’ “Oleo,” and Horace Silver’s toe-tapping “The Preacher.”  This was pretty much a one-time affair for Emmons, who returned to country music, though he did record some additional jazz with guitarist Lenny Breau during the 1970s.  Although the instrument never really caught on in jazz, this highly recommended album, which was finally reissued on CD in 2003, is well worth checking out.

Ken Dryden, All Music

*

Buddy vs. Buddie?   Only his mother knows.

Steel Guitar Jazz LP

“C Jam Blues”: From the Father of Hillbilly Jazz

I had a nice laugh when I realized that this fiery little instrumental in the key of C was, indeed, not the world’s first waltz to be played outside of 3/4 time but instead an error in the track listing on the album jacket.  Thus, despite this song being listed as “Gravy Waltz,” I’m pretty certain this is actually the next track in the album’s running order — the jazz standard, “C Jam Blues” by Duke Ellington:

Track comes from 1974’s double album, Hillbilly Jazz, by the “Father of Hillbilly Jazz” himself, Vassar Clements – who first appeared on the Grand Old Opry in 1949 fiddling with Bill Monroe – joined by D.J. Fontana on drums, Doug Jernigan on steel guitar, David Bromberg on guitar, and other musical friends.

Hillbilly Jazz LP

Vassar Clements:  Fiddle, Viola & Vocals
D.J. Fontana:  Drums
Doug Jernigan:  Steel Guitar, Resonator Guitar
David Bromberg:  Guitar
Michael Melford:  Guitar, Mandolin & Piano
Ellis Padgett:  String Bass
Kenneth Smith:  Electric Bass
Benny Kennerson:  Piano
Gordon Terry:  Vocals

Hillbilly Jazz was issued on Flying Fish.  While Clements’ music mostly enjoyed release on independent, folk-oriented labels (Rounder, Old Homestead, Mind Dust, Flying Fish), Vassar did manage to release a few 45s on a couple major labels of note:

Vassar Mercury 45 IVassar Mercury 45 IIVassar MCA 45aVassar MCA 45b

Danny Gatton & Buddy Emmons: Kings of Steel

DC Week (actually, fortnight) concludes its special run with a joyous instrumental romp from the Federal City’s formidable guitarslinger, Danny Gatton, joined by pioneering pedal steel virtuoso, Buddy Emmons, from their short-lived incendiary partnership, The Redneck Jazz Explosion:

“Raisin’ the Dickens”     Redneck Jazz Explosion     1978

This performance of Buddy Emmons‘ composition “Raisin’ the Dickens” was recorded live at DC’s legendary Cellar Door between the years straddling 1978-79 (i.e., New Year’s Eve show – ain’t I a stinker?) with bassist, Steve Wolf, and drummer, Scott Taylor, rounding out the rhythm section.

Redneck Jazz Explosion - Live

The roots of The Redneck Jazz Explosion were laid in Nashville where the Danny Gatton Band went to record in 1977 and were joined by Emmons in the studio for “Rock Candy” – inspired by Brother Jack McDuff’s 1963 recording featuring a young George Benson on guitar.  The inclusion of this one track on Gatton’s subsequent 1978 LP, Redneck Jazz, garnered strong word-of-mouth from players and fans alike, as well as enthusiastic praise from the likes of Guitar Player magazine and the Washington Post, who would write in their review, “In sheer technical terms, Gatton has few peers on the electric guitar … in good company, he is asserting his position as the preeminent guitarist of the post-World War II generation.”

Danny Gatton's Redneck Jazz LP

Danny and Buddy reunited for two nights in Nashville at Randy Wood’s Old Time Pickin’ Parlor on July 28-29, 1978 joined by Buddy Spicher on fiddle, Bucky Barrett on guitar, Dick Heintze on keys, and Steve Wolf & Dave Palamar on bass and drums, respectively.

                             Emmons       spicher      Palamar       Wolf      gatton

Redneck Jazz ExplosionAs Steve Wolf recounts in “Some Gatton History” on the Rockabilly Hall of Fame website:

“The Redneck Jazz Explosion quartet traveled the East Coast from Boston & New York, to Atlanta and consequently attracted the interest of Atlantic Records. A serious offer was made by Atlantic, but for his own reasons Danny chose not to accept it. Those negotiations in part, prevented the release of the live Cellar Door sessions at the time.  A trio version of the band, minus Buddy, also performed regularly around the DC/Baltimore area.”

New York Times critic, John Rockwell, on February 6, 1979 wrote:

“Sunday night Mr. Gatton was at the Lone Star Cafe for a single evening and drew a big crowd.  Partly that’s because his latest band … includes Buddy Emmons, the pedal street guitarist who’s something of a cult figure at the Lone Star.  But Mr. Gatton deserves his own cult.”

As Brawner Smoot (Gatton’s manager/booking agent) details in the CD liner notes of the Cellar Door concert:

“Carol Posnick [booking agent for DC’s sadly-defunct Cellar Door], a devoted Gatton supporter, always graciously scheduled the band for a three-to-five-day stay (unusual as most artists made a one- or two-day appearance there).  She also allowed me to add the guitar duo of the aforementioned Tom Principato and another hometown picker, Pete Kennedy to share the bill as the opening act.  The combination created cohesive and magical evenings showcasing the area’s finest guitar talents.”

The title track of the Redneck Jazz album, it bears pointing out, was written by vocalist/guitarist, Evan Johns, who coined the term and was joined in the Danny Gatton Band by John Previtti on bass and Dave Elliott on drums.

Danny Gatton                                          Evan Johns

Danny Gatton & Evan Johns II

 Steel Guitar Jazz vs. Redneck Jazz

Buddy Emmons, as Ken Dryden points out in his AllMusic review, “wasn’t the first musician to be featured playing a pedal steel guitar in a jazz setting, but it is unlikely that anyone else recorded an entire date playing one prior to this 1963 session.”  Brawner Smoot, in the liner notes to the Redneck Jazz Explosion Live at the Cellar Door reissue adds that “Buddy Emmons was no stranger to the [jazz] idiom having recorded his instrument’s first jazz album in New York City on July 22, 1963 for Mercury Records.”

Steel Guitar Jazz - Buddy Emmons

“Gibson Girl”: Actually, Billy Byrd’s a Gibson Guy

Guitarist Billy Byrd – according to Ernest Tubbs‘ biographer, Ronnie Pugh – ”came from a pop and jazz background, and there were some people who were leery of the notion that he could play country with Tubb.  [But] he did it and did it well.  The ten years Billy was in the [Texas Troubadours] band, (1949-59) he did practically all of the instrumental breaks.”

Billy Byrd

Sometime in October 1961, Billy Byrd recorded six songs at the Starday Sound Studio in Nashville – including “Gibson Girl“:

“Gibson Girl”     Billy Byrd    1961

Billy Byrd + Hank Garland = Gibson Byrdland

With the input of guitar greats, Billy Byrd and Hank Garland, Gibson’s then-President, Ted McCarty, developed and debuted the Gibson Byrdland electric archtop guitar in 1955, three years before the better-known ES-335.  Gibson.com points out that the Byrdland was reintroduced as a limited run in 1977, 1978 & 1992 – primarily as a result of the popularity of Ted Nugent, who himself wielded a Byrdland in tribute to Jimmy McCarty of Mitch Ryder & the Detroit Wheels.

Gibson Byrdland