Hard to believe it was only 20 years or so ago I was having cheese coneys with The Cincinnati Enquirer‘s preeminent music writer Larry Nager and asking what it would take for the city to finally “own up” to its King Records history. Last week, to my utter delight and amazement, the City of Cincinnati, under Mayor John Cranley‘s leadership and with the support of City Council, leveraged the power of the state on behalf of music history — so now Zero to 180 will have to find something else to complain about.
Thanks to a $1 land swap deal, there will be no wrecking ball for the original structure used by Syd Nathan and his talented team to birth a musical enterprise that enabled King the ability to ship out in the morning a piece of music that had been recorded the evening before. As Brian Powers point out in his King Records Scrapbook, no other label – including almighty Columbia – had the nimbleness to operate in this capacity.
Photo courtesy of Brian Powers
Unique among fellow King chroniclers and researchers, Powers organizes his King Records Scrapbook categorically — The Executives; A&R Men; Sound Engineers; Session Musicians; Recording Artists — rather than chronologically, while throwing in fun tidbits, such as a King Records Timeline of historical highlights plus street addresses of selected King artists and executives, including Syd Nathan (who once lived in Bond Hill an easy walk from the home of drummer, Reg Grizzard, and about a mile and a half from my boyhood home in Roselawn, as the crow flies).
The live, upfront studio sound attained by engineer Eddie Smith had the bass and drums leaping out of the speakers with maximum impact. [Charlie] Feathers wasn’t the only beneficiary [“Bottle to the Baby“]. This sharp, larger-than-life ambience characterizes several other titles on this compact disc including “Move” [Boyd Bennett], “Peg Pants” [Bill Beach], “No Good Robin Hood” [Delbert Barker], and “Rock n’ Roll Nursery Rhyme” [Dave Dudley]. “That old King studio had a terrific sound,” explained Henry Glover. “It had a very high ceiling, maybe 24 feet, and the control room protruded into the studio in a V-shape like the bridge of a ship so the engineer could see in front and to the side of him. I sent for an engineer by the name of Eddie Smith who was a very good technical man. He stayed with King for about 12 years and later worked over at Bell Sound in New York.
Everything was done at one time, there was no multi-tracking; you would continue making cuts until you got every instrument, every voice, on the 1/4 inch tape and that was considered your final mix. In those days, we were even thinking of frequencies and emphasis on various instruments. Out of the regular upright bass, we got a sound just like today’s electric Fender bass by close-miking it with a microphone called the 44BX and surrounding it with live-surfaced acoustic isolation panels. The drum sound in those days was generally gotten by releasing the drum snares completely and you’d put a heavy object like the drummer’s wallet – or Syd Nathan’s wallet – on the snare and the really hard-driving backbeat stroke was actually a rimshot.
Glover would be even more emphatic in his praise for King as a facility with great sound in this passage from Arnold Shaw‘s classic roots rock historical critique, Honkers and Shouters (which includes a chapter devoted to King Records entitled “Record Company in an Icehouse”):
Shortly after he joined King Records, Glover moved to Cincinnati “because Syd Nathan had built one of the finest recording studios in the country and staffed it with Eddie Smith, a former musician who was a brilliant engineer.”
Calvin Shields behind the kit
[photo courtesy Brian Powers]
Last year, on the eve of the city’s Historic Commission vote to consider the request for demolition, The Cincinnati Enquirer would subtitle Sharon Coolidge’s feature story on King in the Sunday edition, “Fight to Preserve the Legacy of King Records and Founder Syd Nathan at Crossroads” and include quotes from Patti Collins (Bootsy Collins Foundation), Elliott Ruther (Cincinnati USA Music Heritage Foundation), Jon Hartley Fox (author of ‘King of the Queen City’), L.A. Reid (who actually grew up in Evanston), Otis Williams, Mayor John Cranley, former mayor Dwight Tillery, and Anzora Adkins of the Evanston Community Council.
Can you spot the gaffe?
Elliott Ruther, in the Enquirer piece, notes the progressive hiring practices employed by Nathan – in his attempt to extend his song publishing fortunes across the color line – that put King in the forefront of American race relations. Powers point out that Calvin “Eagle Eye” Shields, in his studio work from the late 1940s to the late 1950s, may have been “the first black drummer to record country music.”
Calvin ‘Eagle Eye’ Shields – 1950
[Photo courtesy of Brian Powers]
Quotes from Henry Glover & Calvin ‘Eagle Eye’ Shields
[special thanks to Brian Powers*]
- “I started using drums for the first time for country music with Moon Mullican. He fell in love with a black drummer that I had been using on several dates around Cincinnati called Calvin Shields. He was better known as ‘Eagle Eye.’ He was very, very friendly and dear to Moon Mullican. He played on many of his sessions, and many of the other country & western records when they began to use drums, which they didn’t do when I first came to King. [With] Moon Mullican, I would use a heavy backbeat that this drummer called Eagle Eye, that came there with Tiny Bradshaw a few years back and made Cincinnati his home, he was ideal for that, the backbeat.” – Henry Glover
- “Moon had such a great soul. He was just like a black man to me, you know, like he thought, felt, and expressed himself and everything else. Like we would say he had a whole lot of soul, Moon did.” – Henry Glover
- “Drums were a must for Moon. Moon wanted drums. And he fell madly in love with this drummer called Calvin Shields that we called Eagle Eye.” – Henry Glover
- “Moon Mullican was the first to use a black band at King. In just about every case, we had a black bass or maybe a black drummer with Moon in order to get the rhythm because Moon played like a black man and he even thought like a black man – in fact, I sometimes had my ideas about whether he was black or not! He was the very first white man, I believe, that caught my eye as being not filled with bigotry or hatred … he found himself as comfortable among blacks as he did among whites. And it’s a very funny thing – both races in those days were displaying standoff-ish attitudes — not Moon. Moon would make most of the black clubs in the worst parts of town and all of his friends during the course of his stay would be black people. He’d play in black clubs and they would give him a standing ovation. It was very rare.” – Henry Glover
- “Glover introduced us. I walked in and all those white cats sitting around wondering, ‘Hey, he’s got a black man playing his music.’ So I don’t say nothing to them and they don’t say nothing to me. So we played and that’s when I fell in love with him because it swung. So Moon says ‘This is my drummer,’ so when he went to buy some whiskey for the group, he bought a bottle for them and a bottle of whisky for me and him. He said, ‘Man, I want you to take me over to the Cotton Club,’ and I took him. Tiny Bradshaw invited him up and he played nothing but Duke Ellington music.“ – Calvin ‘Eagle Eye’ Shields
- “When a cat becomes a studio musician, he’s a musician who plays anything they bring in front of him to play. When I played with Moon Mullican, I enjoyed it. When I played that Country music, I learned to swing with that Country-Western cause I got into their mood and into their groove. When I got ready to play Rhythm & Blues, I got into their groove. When I play dance music, legit music, I get in to a legit feel cause I am a musician. I didn’t become a superstar. My thing was to be good, in order to be in demand, to be sought after.” – Calvin ‘Eagle Eye’ Shields
- [Moon had a number of hits in 1950 produced by Henry Glover including “I’ll Sail My Ship Alone,” “Mona Lisa” & “Goodnight Irene”; Mullican accepted the invitation to join in the Grand Ole Opry that year.] “Then Moon said, ‘I want to take you on the Grand Ole Opry with me, man.’ I said, ‘No, I don’t want to go on that.’ He asked me if I would travel with him. I told him if I’ll be out there in them towns, them junctions, you might not be around and they’ll done grab me and lynch me.’ But now I wish I had because, if I had got out with Moon, I might have made a name for myself. I might have ended up with the big one – Willie Nelson.” – ECalvin ‘Eagle Eye’ Shields
Moon Mullican & Henry Glover
Shields, who took not only his father’s name but nickname as well, came to King through his membership in Tiny Bradshaw’s Orchestra. Eagle Eye would conduct his session work for King in between performances with Bradshaw in town at Cincinnati’s Cotton Club and on the road in New York City. Shields would subsequently serve as drummer for the Billy Williams Quartet (1957-1961), Della Reese (1967-1973) and music director/drummer for Redd Foxx (1978-1984).
Calvin Shields with Paul Bryant (organ) & Norris Patterson (sax)
Nevada — 1962
Photo courtesy of UNLV Libraries Digital Collections
The index in King Labels: A Discography, edited by Michel Ruppli (with assistance from Bill Daniels) helpfully identifies sessions where Calvin Shields served as the drummer, thus allowing Zero to 180 to compile a special King Recording Session Chronology:
= Click on song titles below for streaming audio (where available) =
Wynonie Harris — October 19, 1949 — Cincinnati
All co-written by Lois Mann (i.e., Syd Nathan) & Henry Bernard (i.e., Henry Glover)
Tiny Bradshaw & His Orchestra — November 30, 1949 — Cincinnati
Henry Bernard Glover
Tiny Bradshaw & His Orchestra — February 8, 1950 — Cincinnati
Three of the four songs from this session co-written by Henry Glover
45 – Denmark
Tiny Bradshaw — June 8, 1950 — Cincinnati
Pronounced rhumba rhythm – further evidence of Latin roots in the early rock era
Tiny Bradshaw Orchestra — September 28, 1950 — Cincinnati
“Walk That Mess“; “Snaggle Tooth Ruth“; “Brad’s Blues” & “Only Forever” [unreleased]
Co-written by Tiny Bradshaw & Henry Glover
45 – France
Roy Brown — January 16, 1951 — Cincinnati
Reissued in the UK in 2014
Lonnie Johnson [with Tiny Bradshaw’s band] — October 26, 1951 — Cincinnati
Co-written by Henry Glover & Syd (‘Lois Mann’) Nathan
Tiny Bradshaw Orchestra — January 16, 1951 — Cincinnati
All four songs co-written by Henry Glover
Tiny Bradshaw Orchestra — April 17, 1951 — Cincinnati
Tiny Bradshaw Orchestra — July 25, 1951 — Cincinnati
Written (and originally performed by) King artist, Ann Jones
Tiny Bradshaw Orchestra — February 27, 1952 — Cincinnati
Little Esther & Her Orchestra — March 11, 1953 — Cincinnati
Another example of the early rock era’s Latin roots – written by Henry B. Glover
Duke Hampton & His Orchestra — April 7, 1953 — Cincinnati
“The Push” & “Please Be Good To Me” + 5 unreleased songs: “Red Riding Hood Blues”; “Nasty Man Blues”; “Stomp Your Feet”; “Sweet Stuff” & “He’s Mine”
Note: Too little is known about bandleader/conductor/arranger Duke Hampton, who recorded exactly one session for King Records. The Indiana Historical Society tells us that “Clarke F. ‘Deacon’ Hampton organized his children into Deacon Hampton’s Family Band while they lived in Ohio. In 1938 the Hamptons settled back in Indianapolis. They later became the Duke Hampton Band and played swing-style music. They disbanded in the late 1940s and formed their own groups or did solo acts. Slide Hampton, playing the trombone, had a prolific career as a composer, arranger, and performer. Sisters Virtue, Aletra, and Carmalita formed a trio.” No images of their King 78 can be found on the web, and streaming audio is only available for “Please Be Good To Me” (click on this link and play at the 8:15 mark).
“The Push” – included on this 1961 French LP
Willis ‘Gatortail‘ Jackson** & His Orchestra — August 23, 1954 — NYC
Little Willie John — June 27, 1955 — NYC
“Bio-disc” that tells of Little Willie John’s fateful first meeting with Henry Glover
Champion‘ Jack Dupree [with Mickey Baker on guitar] — June 29, 1955 — NYC
Little Willie John — September 20, 1955 — NYC
Note: Musical personnel on this session also includes Willis Jackson (tenor sax), Robert “Bubber” Johnson (piano), Milt Hinton (bass), and Mickey Baker (guitar).
Co-written by Rudy Toombs & Henry Glover
Big Daddy & His Boys — January 11, 1957 — NYC
Earl Connelly King — January 15, 1957 — NYC
“Walking Slowly“; “Nothin’“; “Something Money Can’t Buy” & “Daddy Laddy”
Co-written by Earl Connelly King, Henry Glover & King staffer, Fred Mendelsohn
Wynonie Harris — July 17, 1957 — NYC
45 – Germany
Little Willie John — January 4, 1957 — NYC
Co-written by Julius Dixon & Henry Glover
Bill Doggett — April 9, 1959 — Cincinnati
EP – France
Bill Doggett — August 19, 1959 — Cincinnati
“Bugle Nose“; “Goofy Organ”; “The Slush” & “Slidin’” [begin at 2:50 mark]
Note: “Slidin'” co-written by James Brown and Gene Redd.
Co-written by Lucky Millinder & Henry Glover
Bill Doggett — December 15, 1959 — Cincinnati
“Smokie (pt 2)”; “Night Train (pts. 1 & 2)”; “Shebar (Shebossa)”; “My Romance“; “Accent on Youth“; “For All We Know“; “Trav’lin’ Light“; “Angel Eyes“; “If I Should Lose You“; “A Sinner Kissed An Angel“; “Imagination“; “A Sunday Kind of Love“; “Goodbye“; “I’m Yours” & “My Foolish Heart”
EP – US
Furthermore, Eagle Eye is believed – as best as Brian Powers can determine – to have played on Moon Mullican‘s version of Tiny Bradshaw’s “Well Oh Well” [recorded July 3, 1950] and the classic “Cherokee Boogie (Eh-Oh-Aleena)” [December 8, 1950], written by Moon with Chief William Redbird, plus Hawkshaw Hawkins‘ version of Tennessee Ernie’s “Shotgun Boogie” [January, 1951] and Al Dexter‘s “Hi De Ho Boogie on a Saturday Night” [May 19, 1950] — all recorded at King’s Cincinnati studio. Documentation from King’s early years, unfortunately, is often scant.
Shields would also keep time on an enchanting Latin-flavored instrumentalé tropicalé whose musical hook is a gloriously deep bass blast of the horn (B-flat):
“Ocean Liner (Bossa Nova)” Bill Doggett 1959/1963
[Link to other Zero to 180 pieces that feature Bass-Centric Recordings]
“Ocean Liner” – penned by Henry Glover and Bill Doggett – would originally be released in 1959 but then “rebranded” in 1963 as “Ocean Liner Bossa Nova,” just in time to exploit the runaway success of Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd’s Jazz Samba LP (only jazz album ever to top Billboard’s pop chart) of 1962
* * *
Calvin Shields: Inspiration for Mack Rice’s “Mustang Sally“?
According to Douglas Green Associates:
Mack Rice wrote “Mustang Sally” following a visit to his friend, singer Della Reese in New York City. Reese had off-handedly mentioned that she planned to buy her drummer a Lincoln for his birthday. Calvin Shields, the drummer, appreciated the thought but reportedly replied, “I don’t want a Lincoln, I want a Mustang.” Shields’ response confused Rice. He could not understand why anyone would want the small Mustang instead of the bigger and more powerful Lincoln. After returning to Detroit, Rice began work on a song titled “Mustang Mama.” A serendipitous visit to Aretha Franklin’s house led to the name change to “Mustang Sally.” Franklin believed that “Mustang Sally” fit better with the music. And so the song was born.
*Henry Glover quotes are from an 1980s interview with the Country Music Hall of Fame; Calvin Shields quotes are from an interview conducted by Brian Powers in 2009.
**Willis “Gatortail” Jackson played a pivotal role in Jamaican music history when spies working for Duke Reid identified the source of Coxsone Dodd’s theme song (i.e., “Coxsone’s Hop”) that cemented Downbeat‘s status as the superior sound system in Kingston: “Later for the Gator” by Willis Jackson [1958 – sounds not a little unlike ska]. In those pre-Internet days, operators of competing mobile sound systems would use American 45s with the labels scratched off as proprietary source material. Duke Reid’s discovery of Coxsone’s source material would prompt Dodd into creating an original Jamaican sound in 1962 – ska – in time for the birth of JA’s independence. Much more direct evidence of the Cincinnati-Kingston connection can be found here and here.